Minimal retro 70s design space program posters featuring Mars, Moon and Venus.
The Moon was first reached in September 1959 by the Soviet Union’s Luna 2, an unmanned spacecraft. The United States’ NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned lunar missions to date, beginning with the first manned orbital mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six manned landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11.
The first to contact the surface of Mars were two Soviet probes: Mars 2 lander on November 27 and Mars 3 lander on December 2, 1971. Mars 2 failed during descent and Mars 3 about twenty seconds after the first Martian soft landing. Mars 6 failed during descent but did return some corrupted atmospheric data in 1974. The 1975 NASA launches of the Viking program consisted of two orbiters, each with a lander that successfully soft landed in 1976. Viking 1 remained operational for six years, Viking 2 for three. The Viking landers relayed the first color panoramas of Mars.
The first robotic space probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began with the Soviet Venera program in 1961. The United States’ exploration of Venus had its first success with the Mariner 2 mission on 14 December 1962, becoming the world’s first successful interplanetary mission, passing 34,833 km (21,644 mi) above the surface of Venus, and gathering data on the planet’s atmosphere.